Lakota History

Crazy Horse Appearing

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Please enjoy this new life story of Crazy Horse, with freshly dug facts never before revealed, along with the ONLY fully authenticated picture of Crazy Horse known to exist. 


Crazy Horse is my hero. I trust he will be your hero too. 


The appendixes shown on this page include end notes to the book, a language glossary, and recommended reading. 






Crazy Horse Appearing

by Judee Shipman






Appendix 1: End Notes

1 - Crazy Horse had to have been born in the fall of 1843. His natural mother died the following year. To see why Crazy Horse could not have been born any earlier, see note 9 and note 14. 


2 - According to their travel journals, Lewis & Clark met Chief Black Bull in 1804. Relations between the two groups were tense at best. The tobacco story is true. 


3 - The names of Waglula's three wives were obtained from Donovin Sprague, a grandson of High-Back-Bone (a.k.a. “Hump”). Hump was a first cousin to Crazy Horse.


4 - The suicide of Crazy Horse's mother was first mentioned in print by Kingsley Bray. Lakota oral history has it that Rattle-Blanket-Woman was upset by the three new wives her husband brought home. 


5 - The Oglala Winter count calendar for that year mentions the transgendered Absaroka. 


6 - Waglula is known to have disappeared for four years, then returned to his wives and son. 


7 - Mentioned in the Lakota Winter Count calendar for that year. 


8 - All of Waglula's other children are mentioned by various Lakota sources, in genealogy reports pertaining to Crazy Horse. 


9 - Although in 1930 He-Dog gave his age as 92, he was actually only 86 at the time. The age discrepancies arise from converting moons to months, without also adding the extra two or three days to each moon.

Doing this would cause a person to think 13 years had gone by for every twelve years actually passed. So a man of 86 could think he was 92.

Misunderstanding He-Dog's interpreter (White Cow Killer), Eleanor Hinman thought He-Dog claimed to have been born in the Winter They Stole a Hundred Horses (1837), but He-Dog was actually talking about Hundred Horses Winter (1843). 


10 - Mentioned on that year's Oglala Winter Count Calendar, at a time when Waglula was still known as Crazy Horse. 


11 - That Lone Horn saved the lives of 14 Nez Perce raiders appears on more than one Lakota Winter Count. 


12 - The real name of Augustine Lucia appears for the first time here. Other references most often refer to him as 'Lucienne Auguste' or 'August Lucien.' The correct spelling of his name was obtained by the author from Joe Whiting, a grandchild of the widow of Augustine Lucia. 


13 - Details of the Grattan attack were reconstructed from numerous Lakota eyewitness accounts. Not a white man lived to tell of it. 


14 - This is the incident that shows that Crazy Horse was under the age of twelve in 1854.

In those days, a boy was a man at thirteen. If (as Hinman suggests) Crazy Horse (and He-Dog) were born in the Winter-When-They-Stole- 100-Horses (1837), then Crazy Horse would have been seventeen years old at the time of his brief disappearance.

There seems no possibility that a father and cousin frantically searched for a full grown man of seventeen, especially a man of such advanced skills as Crazy Horse.

However, He-Dog did say something about a hundred horses, so he must have been talking about that other winter with 'hundred horses' in its name – Hundred-Horses-Winter (1843). For more details, see note nine. 


15 - Spotted Tail was a Brule warrior raised by his grandparents. Having no parents to represent him as a child, Spotted Tail earned his fame from his outstanding personal qualities alone, with none of the customary childhood victory celebrations that normally marked a boy's accomplishments. 


16 - This slow burning herb is mentioned in (and only in) Lame Deer: Seeker of Visions, by John Fire. The author tried unsuccessfully to learn the name of this herb. 


17 - One story has it that Crazy Horse switched horses often because he quickly ran them to the ground. The tellers of this story are trying to convey that Crazy Horse was so tough, not even the horses could keep up with him.

But the storyteller misses the implied insult. The suggestion of animal abuse dishonors Crazy Horse. 

By all accounts, Crazy Horse was a kind man, and a world-class horseman as well. Never was he known to cause unnecessary harm to an animal. More likely, he released his horses readily, before they had a chance to get worn out.

Remember: He could ride any horse. 


18 - That Crazy Horse had a coyote for a pet as a teenager is mentioned in the book, To Kill an Eagle


19 - In her memoir, Fanny Kelly describes the scene. Although she is unfamiliar with the man she is speaking to, the context makes it clear that the man is, in fact, Crazy Horse.

This incident also verifies the often-told story of how Crazy Horse accidentally killed a long-haired female warrior in battle.

From this, we can conclude that Crazy Horse killed the Omaha lady warrior in the fall of 1864. 


20 - Two stories are told regarding a photo of Crazy Horse. Some Lakota people believe he never had his picture taken.

However, since his image has now been found, more likely true is the other story.

Some Lakota people maintain that Crazy Horse did have his picture taken, near Fort Laramie around 1872, and that Frank Grouard and Little Bat were with him at the time.

Alexander Gardner did photograph many Lakota Sioux people at that place and time. 


21 - The 21-year-old clerk really did write those offensive names on the Crazy Horse surrender ledger. His motivations can only be inferred. 


22 - There are numerous claims about the last words of Crazy Horse. Most of them are disrespectful fabrications by selfish opportunists with their own agendas.

Some contributors put lengthy political comments into the mouth of this great man. John Niehardt went as far as to have Crazy Horse deliver a rhyming speech while dying. Chances are that this man who nearly never spoke did not start speaking as he lay dying. 

It seems most plausible that the last words of Crazy Horse were the ones put forth in this text (and others), supported by numerous Lakota sources.  





Appendix 2: Lakota Language Skills

LAKOTA-ENGLISH TRANSLATION 



WORD              PRONUNCIATION        MEANING 


Adewayeki         (AH-day-wa-YEK-ee)      my father 

Aguyapi             (AH-goo-YAH-pee)         bread 

Apawi                (ahn-PA-wee)                sun 

Caje                  (KAH-zjay)                    name 

Cakahu              (chahn-ka-HOO-en)       backbone 

Caksa                (CHAHN-ksha)               war club 

Can                   (CHAHN)                       tree 

Cekpapi             (CHAYK-PA-pee)             twin 

Cekpa                (CHAYK-pa)                   umbilical cord 

Canupa              (chah-NOON-pa)            pipe 

Egna                  (EG-na)                        among 

Gi                      (GHEE)                         brown 

Gleska               (GLAY-ska)                    spotted 

Ha                     (HA)                             yes 

Hanhepiwi          (HAHN-hay-PEE-wee)    moon 

Hau                   (HOW)                          hello 

Hehaka              (hey-HA-ka)                  elk 

Hemblecha         (hem-BLAY-cha)            vision quest 

Heyoka              (hey-OH-ka)              one who is funny 

Hiya                   (HEE-ya)                       no 

Hlala                  (HLA-la)                        rattle 

Hopa                  (HO-pah)                      beautiful 

Huhi                  (HOO-hee)                    slow 

Inyan                (EE-yahn)                      stone 

Iktomi               (eek-TOH-mee)              spider 

Ista                   (EESH-dah)                   eye 

Itokagata          (ee-DOH-ka-GAH-dahn)  South 

Itowapi             (EE-doh-WA-pee)            picture 

Iyotake             (EE-yo-DAH-kay)            sit down 

Kici                   (KEE-chee)                    with 

Kola                  (KOH-la)                        friend 

Lakota               (La-KHO-ta)                  Sioux 

Luta                  (LOO-dah)                     red 

Ma                    (MAHN)                         medicine 

Magazu             (ma-GAH-zoo)                rain 

Mahpiya            (mag-PEE-ya)                 cloud (or sky) 

Makoce             (mah-KOH-chay)            earth 

Makosica           (mah-koh-SHEE-cha)      badlands 

Mapiha              (ma-PEE-ghah)              frog or toad 

Matȟó                (ma-TOH)                      bear 

Mazawaka          (MAH-za-wa-KAHN)        gun 

Mila                   (MEE-la)                        knife 

Mitawa               (mee-DAH-wa)              my 

Miye                  (MEE-yay)                     me 

Mni                    (MNEE)                         water 

Mniwaka            (mnee-WAH-ka)             whiskey 

Nagi                  (NAH-ghee)                    soul 

Nape                 (NAH-pay)                     hand 

Ohako               (oh-GHAHN-koh)            fast 

Olowa                (oh-LO-wan)                  song 

Owaci                (oh-WAH-chee)             dance 

Oyate                (oh-YAH-day)                tribe 




Paha                  (PAH-ha)                      hills 

Pakeska             (pahn-KAY-ska)             shell 

Pakite                (pah-KEE-day)              wipe 

Peta                  (PAY-dah)                      fire 

Sapa                 (SAH-pa)                       black 

Siha                  (SEE-ha)                       hills

Sina                  (SHEE-na)                     blanket/shawl 

Sinte                 (SEEN-day)                   tail 

Ska                   (SKA)                           white 

Suka                 (SHOON-ka)                  dog 

Sukawaka          (SHOON-ka-wa-KAHN)   horse 

Ta-                    (ta)                          prefix for a person

Talo                   (DAH-loh)                     meat 

Tasina                (ta-SHEENA)            Lady with a blanket

Tasunka            (ta-SHUNKA)      Man with dog (or horse)

Tatanka             (ta-TAHN-ka)                 buffalo bull 

Tate                  (DAH-day)                     wind 

Tatokala            (DAHN-dohn-KA-la)        antelope 

Tipi                   (DEE-pee)                     house or home 

Tipsila               (deep-SEE-lah)              wild white turnip 

To                     (DOH)                           blue 

Toka                  (DOH-ka)                      enemy 

Tunkasila           (toon-KAH-shee-la)        The Universe

Uze                   (OOH-zay)                     buttocks 

Wa                    (WAH)                           snow 

Wabli                 (WAHN-blee)                 eagle 

Waglula             (wah-GLOO-la)              earthworm 

Waka                (wah-KAHN)                  sacred 

Wakalyapi          (WA-ghal-YA-pee)          coffee 

Wakanga           (wah-KAHN-ga)           a cleansing herb 

Wakatanka         (WAH-kahn-TAHN-ka)     God 

Wakawaste        (wah-KAHN-WASH-day)   Saint 

Wakiya              (wah-KEE-yan)               thunder 

Wasicu              (wah-SHEE-choo) Caucasian (derogatory) 

Wasna               (wazh-NA)                     pemmican 

Waste                (WASH-day)                  good 

Wayúhi              (wa-YOO-hee)                brave 

Waziyata            (WAH-zjee-YA-dah)        North 

Wicasayatapi     (wee-CHAH-sha-ya-TA-pee) Chief 

Winkte              (WINK-teh)                    man-woman 

Witko                (WEED-koh)                   enchanted 

Wiya                 (WEE-yan)                     woman 

Wiyohiyapata     (wee-oh-HEE-ya-PAH-ta) East 

Wiyohpeyata     (wee-YOGH-pay-AH-ta)    West 

Wojapi              (woh-ZJA-pee)               cooked fruit 

Woyute             (woh-YOO-day)               food 

Yuki                  (YU-kee)                        white 

Zi                     (ZEE)                            yellow 




Appendix 3: Bibliography

A Song for the Horse Nation: Horses in Native American Cultures; National Museum of the American Indian, 2006 

American-Tribes.com 

Astonisher.com (100 Voices) 

Black Elk Speaks; Black Elk, Nicholas (as told to John Neihardt); University of Nebraska Press, 1932 

Black Elk: The Sacred Ways of a Lakota; Black Elk, Wallace (as told to William Lyon); Harper-Collins, 1990 

Crazy Horse: A Lakota Life; Bray, Kingsley; University of Oklahoma Press, 2008. 

Crazy Horse: Strange Man of the Oglalas; Sandoz, Mari; Alfred A. Knopf, New York, 1942 

FirstPeople.us (Native American portraits) 

From Deep Woods to Civilization (Chapters in the Autobiography of an Indian); Eastman, Charles; University of Nebraska Press, 1916 

Gospel of the Red Man: An Indian Bible (compiled essays); Seton, Ernest Thompson; Doubleday, 1936 

Great Spirit: North American Indian Portraits (compiled photo images); McAndrews, Edward; Carl Mautz, Nevada City, 1998 

Historic Indian Portraits; Rieske, Bill & Verla; Historic Indian Publishers, Salt Lake City, 1974 

Memories of an Indian Boyhood; Eastman, Charles A., 1902 

Lame Deer, Seeker of Visions; Lame Deer/John Fire, with Richard Erdoes; Simon & Schuster, 1972 

Lewis & Clark Among the Indians (the Teton Confrontation); James P. Ronda; University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln and London, 1984 

My People the Sioux; Standing Bear, Luther; HoughtonMifflin, 1928

My Indian Boyhood; Standing Bear, Luther; Luther Standing Bear, 1931  

Narrative of My Captivity Among the Sioux Indians; Kelly, Fanny; Longmeadow Press, 1994 edition (Originally published in 1871). 

NativeWeb.org Sitting Bull: His Life and Legacy; LaPointe, Ernie; Gibbs-Smith, 2009 

The Crazy Horse Surrender Ledger; Edited by Thomas Buecker and R. Eli Paul; Nebraska State Historical Society, 1994 

The Journey of Crazy Horse; Marshall, Joseph M. III; Penguin Books, 2005 

The Killing of Chief Crazy Horse (compiled eyewitness accounts); Clark, Robert E; University of Nebraska Press, 1976 

The Life and Adventures of Frank Grouard, Chief of Scouts, USA; deBarthe, Joe; Combe Printing Company, Saint Joseph, Missouri, 1894 

The Death of Crazy Horse: A Tragic Episode in Lakota History; Hardorff, Richard; Bison Books, 2001 

The Life and Death of Crazy Horse; Freedman, Russell; Scholastic Inc., 1996 

The North American Indians in Early Photographs; Fleming, Paula Richardson and Judith Luskey; Calmann & King, London, 1986 

The Soul of the Indian: An Interpretation; Eastman, Charles A., Houghton, 1911 

To Kill An Eagle; Kadlecek, Edward; Johnson Books, Trade Paperback, Reprinted 2012 

Voices of the American West, Volumes 1 and 2 (compiled eyewitness accounts); Ricker, Eli; University of Nebraska Press, 2005 

War or Peace: The Anxious Wait for Crazy Horse; Oliver Knight; Nebraska History 54 (1973): 521-544 





BOOKS BY THIS AUTHOR: 

Crazy Horse Appearing 

Every Body, Every Wear: The Illustrated Glossary of Fabric, Fashion and Style 

ABODE: The Picture Dictionary of Home Construction and Residential Architecture 

Yule Log: Noteworthy Events That Happened on Christmas Day  

Portable Chess Coach (Cardoza Publishing, NYC, 2006) 



OTHER WORKS BY THIS AUTHOR: 

USlearning.net 

prntr.com 

Many thousand articles, blogs, pages, and posts for web content covering a broad range of topics. 

Other books: See Amazon 




A LAKOTA LIFE:

CRAZY HORSE APPEARING

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